Other names:Fat Targeted Proapoptotic Peptide, FTPP
Adipotide or FTPP (Fat Targeted Proapoptotic Peptide), is a synthetic peptide that has been studied for its possible application in the treatment of obesity and weight loss. The peptide is particularly engineered to target and cause apoptosis (programmed cell death) in blood arteries that supply white adipose tissue (fat cells).Adipotide’s primary mode of action involves targeting two domains in the body: the homing domain, which allows the peptide to target a protein called Prohibitin on the surface of blood vessel cells supplying adipose tissue, and the membrane-disrupting domain, which disrupts mitochondrial membranes in the targeted cells, resulting in apoptosis.
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|Molecular Weight:||2611.41 g/mol|
|Synonyms:||Fat Targeted Proapoptotic Peptide, FTPP|
What is Adipotide Peptide?
Adipotide, also known as FTPP (Fat Targeted Proapoptotic Peptide), is a research peptide intended for use as a possible therapy for obesity. In order to reduce fat mass and address concerns connected to obesity, it seeks to trigger apoptosis in fat cells, specifically in white adipose tissue.
Adipotide affects fatty acid transport and cell functions by attaching to ANXA2 and prohibitin receptors on blood arteries supporting white adipose tissue. Its unique structural features, which include stretches like GKGGRAKDC-GG-D(KLAKLAK)2, make it possible to interact with these receptors.
Adipotide damages the mitochondria of fat cells after binding, leading to programmed cell death. This method of gradually eliminating fat cells holds promise for reducing visceral and subcutaneous fat, as well as for reducing accumulation of fat in tissues and organs like the fatty liver.
How Does Adipotide Peptide Work?
①Receptor Binding: Adipotide’s distinctive structure, which comprises particular amino acid sequences, is intended to bind to receptors. The peptide can attach to receptors on the outside of blood arteries that support white adipose tissue thanks to these sequences. It primarily targets prohibitin and ANXA2 (annexin A2).
②Receptor Interaction: Adipotide interacts with the prohibitin and ANXA2 receptors, which leads to the onset of a chain of cellular processes. In white adipose tissue, prohibitin and ANXA2 are involved in cellular functions and fatty acid transport.
③Mitochondrial Disruption: The structure of adipotide comprises sequences that enable it to disassemble the mitochondria in fat cells. The organelles in cells that produce energy are called mitochondria. Adipotide’s interference results in mitochondrial malfunction and damage.
④Apoptosis: Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, occurs in fat cells as a result of adipotide’s disruption of the mitochondria and the cellular stress it causes. Cells naturally purge damaged or undesirable cells from the body through this procedure.
⑤Fat Cell Elimination: Over time, the quantity of white adipose tissue diminishes as more fat cells are exposed to adipotide and experience apoptosis. This may result in less fat building up in the body’s intended target locations.
Adipotide Peptide and Weight Loss
Adipotide is a relatively recent development in the field of weight loss and metabolic research. It is a synthetic proapoptotic peptide that was developed in the early 21st century. Clinical trials were conducted on Rhesus monkeys, which are considered relevant primate models for human obesity in 2011 during Phase 1 trials. Female monkeys were selected based on their history of spontaneous obesity and Adipotide was administered through daily subcutaneous injections.
①Animal Studies on Rhesus Monkeys:
- Daily subcutaneous treatment with increasing doses of adipotide led to dose-dependent decreases in body weight, body mass index (BMI), and abdominal circumference.
- After 9 weeks of dosing, treated monkeys showed a weight loss of 15.4% to 20.4%, a decrease in BMI of 17.1% to 20.4%, and a reduction in abdominal circumferences by 13.1% to 14.2%.
- Adipotide-treated monkeys exhibited improved insulin sensitivity, as indicated by reduced insulinogenic index (a measure of insulin resistance) by 48.5%.
- Adipotide treatment did not cause significant changes in serum lipid profiles or liver enzymes.
- There was evidence of mild and reversible renal toxicity, including alterations in serum creatinine, serum phosphorus, serum potassium, and urinary parameters. However, these changes reversed after discontinuation of treatment.
②Weight Loss and Metabolic Benefits:
- Adipotide led to marked weight loss primarily due to the reduction in visceral (abdominal) fat.
- Improved insulin sensitivity and reduced insulin resistance were observed in treated monkeys.
- Serum-free fatty acids decreased over the treatment period, suggesting improved fat metabolism.
③Specificity and Safety:
- Adipotide demonstrated tissue specificity by targeting receptors on the endothelium of blood vessels supplying white adipose tissue.
- The side effects were generally mild and reversible, primarily involving renal toxicity and mild dehydration.
- There were no significant adverse effects on critical organs or neurotransmitter function.
The research on Adipotide indicates that it can induce rapid weight loss through targeted apoptosis of fat cells. This effect is achieved by binding to specific receptors on blood vessel endothelial cells, leading to fat cell death and subsequent reduction in fat tissue volume. Adipotide showed promise in reducing body weight, improving insulin sensitivity, and demonstrating tissue specificity in nonhuman primate models of obesity. However, there were also mild and reversible renal toxicity and altered urinary parameters associated with treatment.
Please note that while the data presented here provides insights into the effects of Adipotide, further research and clinical trials are necessary to fully understand its potential for weight loss and its safety profile in humans.
Source origin: PubMed Central
Adipotide For Sale | Adipotide Supplier
Adipotide (FTPP, meaning Fat Targeted Proapoptotic Peptide) is a synthetic peptide that has been studied for its possible application in weight loss. It works by specifically targeting and causing apoptosis (programmed cell death) in blood arteries that supply white adipose tissue, resulting in decreased blood flow to fat cells. This nutrient shortage leads fat cells to die, resulting in a reduction in fat mass. Adipotide’s primary mode of action involves targeting two domains in the body: the homing domain, which allows the peptide to target a protein called Prohibitin on the surface of blood vessel cells supplying adipose tissue, and the membrane-disrupting domain, which disrupts mitochondrial membranes in the targeted cells, resulting in apoptosis. There are many suppliers who declare to offer Adipotide of high quality; however, when purchasing Adipotide online, be sure to choose the supplier carefully to obtain genuine Adipotide. Adipotide of pharmaceutical grade and other peptides are available from reputable provider Polypeptide.Ltd.
Adipotide is a synthetic peptide that has been studied for its possible use in weight loss and obesity management. The peptide is particularly engineered to target and cause apoptosis (programmed cell death) in blood arteries that supply white adipose tissue (fat cells). This novel mechanism of action seeks to limit the blood supply to fat cells, causing them to shrink and eventually disappear from the body. You have arrived to the right site if you’re looking for a reputable and top peptide Adipotide manufacturer or factory.
Adipotide works by disrupting the blood arteries that nourish fat cells, causing them to die as a result of nutrition starvation. This process results in slow fat tissue loss and, as a result, weight loss. The mechanism of action of adipotide is selective, with the goal of sparing other tissues and organs while predominantly targeting fat cells.
In order to best serve customers, Polypeptide.ltd, a reputable manufacturer of Adipotide, also offers the peptide in vial form in addition to powder form. The best Adipotide prices may be found at Polypeptide.ltd!
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What possible advantages might Adipotide have?
Rapid and specific weight loss through lowering fat tissue, particularly abdominal fat, is one of adipotide’s potential advantages. Additionally, it might improve insulin sensitivity and hold promise for people with type 2 diabetes. These advantages, however, have not yet been demonstrated in humans and are based on research in animal models.
Does taking Adipotide have any negative effects?
Although there is little information on the adverse effects of Adipotide, investigations on nonhuman primates have shown some minor renal damage that is reversible and impaired tubular function. Fatigue and dehydration have both been mentioned. It’s crucial to remember that Adipotide’s safety and its negative effects in people are not fully understood.
Is it Adipotide recommended for weight loss?
Adipotide is currently not advised for use in weight loss in humans due to a lack of regulatory authorisation and thorough clinical research. Adipotide or comparable peptides should only be used after consulting a licensed medical expert.
Can other conditions be treated with Adipotide?
Adipotide is being investigated in preclinical research for its effects on diabetes and cancer in addition to its potential application for weight loss. These prospective uses, however, are still in the experimental stages and need more study.
How is Adipotide given out?
Subcutaneous injections are the usual method of giving amipotide. The blood arteries supplying adipose tissue are the target of the peptide once it has been injected into the body. Depending on the study and experimentation being carried out, the frequency and dose of injections may change.
Is it possible to buy Adipotide?
Adipotide is offered in a number of forms by specific sources, however it’s necessary to use caution. It is unsafe to purchase Adipotide from unreliable sources due to the absence of governmental approval and possibilities for fake or mislabeled items.
Adipotide (FTPP) Peptide dosage calculator
Barnhart, K. F., Christianson, D. R., Hanley, P. W., … & Pasqualini, R. A peptidomimetic targeting white fat causes weight loss and improved insulin resistance in obese monkeys. Science translational medicine, 2011.
Thuaud F, Ribeiro N, Nebigil CG, Désaubry L. Prohibitin ligands in cell death and survival: mode of action and therapeutic potential. Chem Biol. 2013;20(3):316-331.
 Daquinag AC, Tseng C, Salameh A, et al. Depletion of white adipocyte progenitors induces beige adipocyte differentiation and suppresses obesity development. Cell Death Differ. 2015;22(2):351-363.
Kim DH, Sartor MA, Bain JR, Sandoval D, Stevens RD, Medvedovic M, Newgard CB, Woods SC, Seeley RJ. Rapid and weight-independent improvement of glucose tolerance induced by a peptide designed to elicit apoptosis in adipose tissue endothelium. Diabetes. 2012 Sep;61(9):2299-310.
Smith, T. L., Sidman, R. L., Arap, W., & Pasqualini, R. (2022). Targeting vascular zip codes: from combinatorial selection to drug prototypes. In The Vasculome (pp. 393-401). Academic Press.
Blaszczak AM, Jalilvand A, Hsueh WA. Adipocytes, Innate Immunity and Obesity: A Mini-Review. Front Immunol. 2021;12:650768. Published 2021 Jun 24.
Staquicini FI, Cardó-Vila M, Kolonin MG, Trepel M, Edwards JK, Nunes DN, Sergeeva A, Efstathiou E, Sun J, Almeida NF, Tu SM, Botz GH, Wallace MJ, O’Connell DJ, Krajewski S, Gershenwald JE, Molldrem JJ, Flamm AL, Koivunen E, Pentz RD, Dias-Neto E, Setubal JC, Cahill DJ, Troncoso P, Do KA, Logothetis CJ, Sidman RL, Pasqualini R, Arap W. Vascular ligand-receptor mapping by direct combinatorial selection in cancer patients. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Nov 15;108(46):18637-42.
Hossen N, Kajimoto K, Akita H, Hyodo M, Harashima H. A comparative study between nanoparticle-targeted therapeutics and bioconjugates as obesity medication. J Control Release. 2013;171(2):104-112.
Kolonin MG, Saha PK, Chan L, Pasqualini R, Arap W. Reversal of obesity by targeted ablation of adipose tissue. Nat Med. 2004 Jun;10(6):625-32.
Salameh A, Daquinag AC, Staquicini DI, An Z, Hajjar KA, Pasqualini R, Arap W, Kolonin MG. Prohibitin/annexin 2 interaction regulates fatty acid transport in adipose tissue. JCI Insight. 2016 Jul 7;1(10):e86351.
Elmore S. Apoptosis: a review of programmed cell death. Toxicol Pathol. 2007;35(4):495-516.
Fang Y, Kaszuba T, Imoukhuede PI. Systems Biology Will Direct Vascular-Targeted Therapy for Obesity. Front Physiol. 2020;11:831. Published 2020 Jul 15.
Kim DH, Woods SC, Seeley RJ. Peptide designed to elicit apoptosis in adipose tissue endothelium reduces food intake and body weight. Diabetes. 2010 Apr;59(4):907-15.
”Prohibitin-targeting peptide 1″. NCI Drug Dictionary. National Cancer Institutes. 2 February 2011.
”Blood vessel mapping reveals four new ‘ZIP codes'”. medicalxpress. 24 October 2011. Retrieved 10 November 2011.
Author of this article:
Dr. Jean Zeng graduated from king’s college london Faculty of Life Sciences & Medicine.
Scientific Journal paper Author:
1.Kirstin F. Barnhart
Department of Veterinary Science and Keeling Center for Comparative Medicine and Research, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA.
Department of Pharmacology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
3.Dr David Preiss
MRC Population Health Research Unit, Clinical Trial Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
Telethon Kids Institute, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia
Therapeutic Innovation Laboratory (UMR 7200), CNRS/Université de Strasbourg, Faculté de Pharmacie, France
In no way does this doctor/scientist endorse or advocate the purchase, sale, or use of this product for any reason. Polypeptide.ltd has no affiliation or relationship, implied or otherwise, with this physician. The purpose of citing this doctor is to acknowledge, acknowledge and commend the exhaustive research and development work done by the scientists working on this peptide.